International Physician Assistants
Whether you are a recently graduated PA, a seasoned PA looking for a fresh career outside the US border, or a pre-PA looking into international opportunities after graduation, you’ve come to the right place. In this post, you’ll find everything you’ll need from physician assistant (PA) schools in other countries to international resources for job listings, to organizations uniting international PAs! As AAPA’s 2013-2015 Strategic Plan does not include any efforts or services associated with international PA practice, it will become increasingly difficult for PAs to learn about changes developing outside the US. If you have any resources or comments to add to this posting, please leave them in the comments below and I’d be happy to include any and all changes or additions.
First, I’ll direct your attention to AAPAs “International Practice” page, which offers information about international licensure, liability coverage, transporting medical supplies, and ethical practice. They also have a FAQ and Guidelines for Working Internationally, which you might find useful. Other resources were previously available, but have been removed from the site. One example was AAPAs “Before You Go--Preparing for International Practice” which included passport information, visa information, insurance, immunizations, physician supervision, guidelines for working internationally, and much more! AAPA also used to have another resource titled International Employment and Training, where you could stay up-to-date on the most current status of employment challenges faced internationally by PAs. Write to AAPA at firstname.lastname@example.org and let them know if you feel materials like this are necessary and needed in the PA community.
International PA Caucuses involved in the delivery of international healthcare are:
Non-AAPA resources involved in the delivery of international healthcare are:
- Physician assistants
- Clinical officers
- Medical assistants
In the Spring of 2012, the Afghan National Army (ANA) implemented a physician assistant (PA) program which inspired the Paktya Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) to work with the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (GIRoA) officials and transition the program to the civilian sector. PAs are a new concept in Afghanistan. Candidates must be at least 18 years old and a high school graduate. They take entrance exams to be accepted into the program. Read more about the program here.
There have been two conferences on PAs in Australia. Representatives from the Health Innovation Advisory Subcommittee attended the 2007 AAPA conference. A demonstration project was held in 2008. PAs are now allowed to work in Queensland Australia as of late 2013. The largest problem facing PAs seems to be job placement after graduation. Most Australian PA graduates remain in their previous occupational titles as they await new opportunities for formal employment as physician assistants. While the private sector is a possibility, generating enough revenue (for salary) is challenging. The government offers limited opportunity for PAs at the moment.
As part of the “New roles in context of Workforce Reform South Australian Health Care Plan 2007-2016”, the government of South Australia launched a South Australia Health PA trial. This program recruits US PAs to work for one year in three clinical settings: surgery and anesthesia, peri-operative medicine, and pediatrics. Positive outcomes have been reported in terms of patient and professional acceptance and quality of care. AAPA suggests contacting U.S. agencies such as the State Department, U.S. AID, the Peace Corps or corporations such as Raytheon and Shell Oil for employment.
Physician Assistant (PA) Clinical Governance Guideline - Queensland Department of Health
PACED - information, communication, and resources for PAs in Australia
The University of Queensland PA Program - while UQ has suspended its program, it has indicated that it may re-open the program if national registration of graduates is likely and if employers indicate that positions will be available
James Cook University PA Program - three-year bachelor’s program in the rural tropical north
Edith Cowan University PA Program - two-year master’s program
Interestingly, Australian PA graduates and students bring almost 15 years of experience to the workforce prior to entering PA programs. Incredible considering it is 5 times the current average in the US!
Canada’s confederation consists of 10 provinces and 3 territories that each have jurisdiction of its administration and regulation of its health professionals, including PAs. 4 of the 10 provinces allow PAs to practice.
PAs have existed in the Canadian Forces (military) for since 1984 and are trained by the Canadian Forces Health Services Training Centre in Borden, Ontario. The placement on rotation of military PAs in civilian health care establishments generated interest in use of PAs in civilian sector. Two provinces (Manitoba and Ontario) have developed civilian training programs. The specific schools are the University of Manitoba, McMaster University, and the University of Toronto, in partnership with the Northern Ontario School of Medicine and the Michener Institute for Applied Health Sciences. Representatives have attended AAPA conferences. The Certified Canadian Physician Assistant (CCPA) is recognized as the national standard designation, however, certification is not required in all provinces to practice.
Physician assistants in Canada can make a starting salary of $90,000 and are required to be certified and registered with the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Alberta. PAs are currently practicing across Canada in the Canadian Armed Forces and are working in the public health care system in the provinces of Manitoba, Ontario, New Brunswick and Alberta. PAs are regulated in Manitoba and New Brunswick by the respective provincial college of physicians and surgeons. In both Ontario and Alberta, the profession is not regulated. However, the Ontario Minister of Health has recommended that a mandatory registry be established which would be governed by the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario. In Alberta a voluntary registry has been established for PAs under the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Alberta. PAs are permitted to practice, by way of delegation, under the provincial Medical Act. There are currently upwards of 400 PAs practicing in Canada.
The four PA programs in Canada are accredited by the Canadian Medical Association’s Conjoint Accreditation Services. The 3 civilian university programs are 2 undergraduate programs located in Ontario and a master’s degree program at the University of Manitoba. All programs are 24-25 months long with the number of seats determined by the provincial government.
Regulation of Physician Assistants - Ontario
HealthForceOntario - jobs and resources for working PAs in Ontario
PreMed101.com - A place for PA and NP students in Canada
University of Manitoba - two-year master’s program
- Canadian Forces Health Services Training Centre PA Program - restricted to serving members; grants a degree in collaboration with the University of Nebraska Medical Center
McMaster University - bachelor’s program
University Toronto PA Consortium - bachelor’s program
University of Western Ontario - no longer has a program
Although some locations may offer opportunities for rotations or volunteering in China as students, permanent work in China as physician assistants is not currently allowed as a PA is not recognized as a licensed profession in China. China does have “assistant doctors” that are licensed healthcare workers and graduate from three-year medical training institutions.
Shanghai United Family Hospital - for clinical rotations
NuPhysicia - hires PAs to work in Egypt on behalf of the DoD
- $78,000 salary
- 1-year renewable contract
- 183 work days/year
Health officers are trained in universities. All hold bachelor's degrees and therefore can progress to master's level training and education e.g. in emergency surgery.
Germany does have physician assistant programs available, but the role of the PA is still new and there is not yet a representative national professional or academic organization representing them.
Duale Hochschule Karlsruhe Physician Assistant Program
Mattias-Hochschule Rheine University of Applied Sciences Physician Assistant Program
Steinbeis University of Berlin Physician Assistance Program
In Ghana, physician assistant (PA) refers to 3 branches of healthcare professionals trained in the medical model to practice medicine or dentistry. PA-Medical is a medical assistant (MA), or a physician assistant analog. PA-Dental is a community oral health officer and PA-Anesthesia is known as a nurse anesthetist. Ghana has only 3,500 physicians and dentists, and 2,500 Medical Assistants (MAs) (PA analog) for the care of its 24.2 million people. This very limited supply of health care providers contributes to poor access to care and population health in the country.
MAs in Ghana provide over 70% of the population’s primary health care. "Educating for Service” is the motto for the College of Health and Well-being in Kintampo and its graduates live by it. MAs are trained there. On average they care for 90-150 patients per day, primarily in rural clinic settings, but also in large regional hospitals. The school and MA profession celebrated its 40th anniversary in 2009. 90% of PAs are licensed by the Medical and Dental Council of Ghana, the regulatory body for medical and dental health professionals. 7 schools train PAs in Ghana and 7 schools are applying for accreditation to start programs.
Interestingly, the PA-medical profession was previously dominated by males, but is now acquiring more females (50%).
The College of Health and Well-being Kintampo (formerly Rural Health Training School) - 18 month program; trains professional nurses on the medical model to care for rural and underserved populations
Central University - train physician assistants and grant a B.Sc.
Presbyterian University College - train physician assistants and grant a B.Sc.
Physician assistants have been in India since 1994, when there were only 3 graduates. Today there are nearly 1,300 PAs and 1,200 students pursuing PA education. However, PAs are not yet licensed in India.
In the beginning, PAs were trained by private cardiovascular surgeons in Chennai, Tami Nadu state as an experiment. These PAs left and followed cardiologists and surgeons who wished to take them to their other facilities in India. PA graduates were wanted because they were experienced and had more exposure than newly graduated medical students. Today, 47 PA programs in India exist with collaboration from 10 universities. 46 of those are located in southern India (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu). Candidates are required to have prior health care experience as a nurse or another allied health profession. Only one PA program is organized by the government, the Tamil Nadu Dr. MGR Medical University in Chennai. It is a 3-year graduate program.
Today, PAs work in cardiology, cardiovascular surgery, general medicine and surgery, trauma, orthopedics, obstetrics and gynecology, oncology, and emergency medicine. Unfortunately, PA programs in India have no formalized program curriculum, but IAPA continues to press the government to recognize the profession and to take necessary approaches to solve this problem.
India still needs many PAs in the north. They also need the government of India to recognize and license their practice, in addition to introducing PA programs at medical colleges across the country. The government has proposed a 3-year baccalaureate degree in community health to curb the shortage of physicians in India in addition to a rural medical assistant 3-year medical training program in Chhattisgarh.
Comprehensive Health Services, Inc. - The Medical Services Support in Iraq (MSSI) Program Manager establishes a clinically safe and professionally managed healthcare environment and provides primary health care as well as resuscitative surgical care in accordance with U.S. or equivalent medical standards on a 24-hour basis, 365 days of the year to Chief of Mission (COM) personnel U.S. Embassy Baghdad, serving a population of approximately 14,000 adults.
Military Civilian Blog - posts PA jobs in Iraq and middle east
In 2009, the Israeli Medical Association (physician organization) stated its opposition to the PA profession in a white paper, instead supporting the use of pre-existing physician counterparts. This opposition was matched in 2010 by a report by the Israel Ministry of Health’s Healthcare Workforce Committee, which recommended investigating PAs, NPs, and the like, with an expectation that these providers would increase the quality of care and productivity of the clinic/hospital to “free up time for the physician.”
As of July 2013, the Israel Ministry of Health has in principle decided to accept physician’s assistants (PAs) as a fully fledged medical profession. According to the committee, the PAs will start by working in hospitals, especially in fields in which there is a severe shortage of physicians – anesthesiology, emergency medicine, surgery, internal medicine and pathology. Extra training and lab work will be required for pathologists and other similar fields.
There is a catch, though. These PAs will be recruited from pre-existing cohorts of health professionals. For example, the pathology PA applicants (the first cohort) will be prior laboratory workers or foreign medical school graduates who did not pass their licensing examination. According to Dr. Berkowitz et al., these new PAs will be “paramedics” that are given additional training and education to fulfill their new role. This is similar to the American model for PA programs.
Physician Assistants in Israel Facebook
Training in Kenya is under the Ministry of Health through the Clinical Officers Council (COC), which sets the syllabus and accredits training institutions. The Kenya Medical Training College (KMTC), also under the Ministry of Health, has campuses all over the country and trains the majority of clinical officers. Unlike other countries, clinical officers (physician assistants) in Kenya are a constitutionally recognised profession. They are required to sign legal documents such as medical certificates, death certificates, forms etc. and to present medical evidence in a court of law eg. in cases of rape and assault..
The training is rigorous and follows a compressed medical model. The first year is dedicated to learning the basic sciences, some experience in a diagnostic medical laboratory, nursing and clinical skills. The second year focuses on the clinical subjects whereas the third year is spent almost entirely rotating in every department of a teaching hospital where they attend ward rounds, clerk patients and present cases, perform deliveries and as first assistants in major surgical operations. They also attend clinical meetings and write prescriptions which at this stage must be countersigned by a supervising clinician.
Registration after three years of training, students sit for the national final qualifying examination (FQE) which is administered by the Clinical Officers Council. Those who trained outside the country sit a separate paper exam. On passing the FQE they are expected to apply for provisional registration by the Clinical Officers Council before proceeding for internship in accredited hospitals. The internship lasts one year and involves three-month supervised rotations in the major clinical departments namely casualty, medicine, paediatrics, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology.
Career advancement Qualified clinical officers with three years experience qualify to enroll for a Higher National Diploma at KMTC which leads to a specialist qualification in various specialty fields.
The Tubman National Institute of Medical Arts (TNIMA) was established in 1945. In 1965 the physician assistant programme was established as a joint venture between the Liberian government, WHO and UNICEF. Initially it was a one year course but currently it is a three year diploma course accredited by the Liberia National Physician Assistant Association (LINPAA) and the Liberia Medical and Dental Association Board. In order to legally practice medicine as a PA one must sit and pass a state exam administered by the medical board.
Clinical officers train for three years and undergo one year internship whereas Medical assistants train for two years and undergo one year internship. Medical assistants can then enrol for a 18 month up-grading course to become Clinical officers. The upgrading course takes place at Malamulo and Malawi College of Health Sciences.
In this country the Clinical officers have almost entirely replaced doctors who are in short supply or based in the urban areas. They are trained to carry out all the routine functions of a doctor at a district hospital hence are able to perform routine surgical and Obstetric Operations such as Caesarean Sections, Hysterectomies, Orthopedic care, Burr holes, Lumbar Punctures, and other important Life saving Surgical procedures.
Tecnicos de cirurgia are experienced Clinical officers (Tecnicos de medicina) who undergo further residential training in surgery under senior surgeons lasting two years at Maputo Central Hospital and one year internship at a provincial Hospital. They are trained to carry out emergency surgery, obstetrics and traumatology and are deployed to the district hospitals where they are usually the sole surgeons.
The first four physician assistants in the Netherlands were introduced in 2001. Since then, they have grown to more than 1,000 PAs, pushing out between 150-200 graduates each year. Interestingly, this is one country that did not develop the PA out of a lack of physicians or decreased access to healthcare.
The model is a bit different: it is a work study model that is tied to one specialty. This means that the PA students work (are employed) under a “supervising physician” throughout the entire program. This not only allows for great teaching opportunity, but assures students of a job afterward.
PAs work mainly in surgical specialties with education funded by the Ministry of Healthcare and the Ministry of Education. Representatives have attended AAPA conferences and made consultative visits to US PA programs, AAPA, PAEA. There are 5 PA programs in the Netherlands, located in Nijmegen, Utrecht, Amsterdam, Groningen, and Rotterdam.
PA Programs - all are 30 month Master’s programs requiring a healthcare related bachelor’s degree and at least 2 years of clinical work experience in the healthcare setting
New Zealand is interesting because it’s healthcare system is divided into 20 district health boards, with the number of hospitals in each district based on population.
New Zealand found interest in PAs in 2000, but seriously implemented its interest in 2009 when it tasked Health Workforce NZ with starting its first demonstration project of PAs.
In 2010, the four District Health Boards in the Northern Region of New Zealand (Auckland District Health Board (ADHB), Counties Manukau District Health Board (CMDHB), Waitemata District Health Board (WDHB) and Northland District Health Board (NDHB)), in collaboration with the University of Auckland Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, are proposed to undertake a pilot study of the Physician Assistant (PA) role. Physician Assistants, referred to as physician associates in New Zealand, are not currently part of the health workforce in New Zealand.
The overall purpose of the “pilot of pilots” project was to determine whether the PA scope of practice, as practiced by PAs trained under the US medical model and working under the delegation of a registered medical practitioner, had a role to play in the future of health services in New Zealand (NZ). The scope of practice for PAs in New Zealand would be different and initially narrower than that in the United States, but it was expected that it would evolve during the pilot as understanding of the opportunities of the PA role in the New Zealand setting were clarified.
As a first step, it was proposed to start with a small pilot in surgery at CMDHB in South Auckland. The pilot was in the department of general surgery. Two US trained PAs were brought to NZ to work at CMDHB for a period of twelve months, commencing in 2010. Their work and communication skills enabled for a successful pilot, paving the way for the current “New Zealand PA Pilot Project” which began in late 2012.
The initial demonstration showed that physician associates can fill gaps in service delivery and contribute to improving patient outcomes. Current New Zealand employers are keen to retain their physician associates and take on more. Seven PAs were a part of this project serving sites on the North and South Islands.
As of 2014, there are 6 physician assistants working in family practice settings on the North Island, 4 in the Hamilton area, and 2 in Tokorua (rural area). A seventh PA works in the ED near the southern tip of the South Island. The largest question for New Zealand PAs is how to implement this pilot success into a regulated healthcare profession that will having a lasting impact on the NZ healthcare system. Until then, PAs await the day the Ministry of Health approves them as a regulated profession, provides them prescribing rights, and the day they develop PA training programs.
More information can be found here.
Note: during the demonstrations, physician associates cannot prescribe.
Known in Puerto Rico as “Asociados Médicos,” Puerto Rico is the only U.S. territory that has no law to authorize physician assistant practice. To date, very little movement has occurred on the legislation introduced in 2009 by Representative Carlos Mendez Nuñez that would work to change this by licensing PAs and nurse practitioners to provide health services currently provided only by medical doctors on the island. Aside from two public hearings held on the bill in early January of 2010, no substitute bill akin to the AAPA’s Model State Legislation for Physician Assistants has been introduced or any other action taken on the part of the Puerto Rico Legislature.
Chatham University PA Program - as of August 2010, Chatham University PA Program has partnered with Universidad Metropolitana and the VA Caribbean Health System to launch the first ever PA program in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
Rwanda re-opened its clinical officer program in 2012 after the various medical training programs were all brought under the umbrella of the University of Rwanda.
Saudi Arabia introduced universal healthcare in 2005. Since then, they are facing shortages and maldistribution of the current providers.
Saudi Arabia introduced its first Assistant Physician (Physician Assistant) program in September of 2010 when the Ministry of Defense decided to train young Saudis interested in healthcare. The program was established with aid from George Washington University Medical Faculty and Associates. The program was founded at the Prince Sultan Military College of Health Sciences, in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.
Candidates must have at least a bachelor’s degree in applied sciences, be proficient in English (courses are taught in English), and competence in reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills (TOEFL score >500 or IELTS > 5.5). The 28-month long program started with 46 students and will lead to the granting of Masters degree in applied health science. The program currently has a staff of three. The didactic curriculum is year-round, while the clinical rotations in the second year of study are located at military hospitals and affiliated institutions. Students rotate in emergency medicine, general surgery, orthopedic surgery, internal medicine, psychiatry, field medicine and family medicine. Additionally, students must also commit to serve in the military for 5 years after graduation. For licensure, graduates must pass a comprehensive examination including clinical and oral exams. After completing a 6-month internship in emergency medicine under a supervising physician, then graduate may then serve as a military medical officer (first lieutenant) in the Ministry of Defense’s medical service division.
Since inception, 15 graduates have completed the program and 7 candidates are on rotations. Current challenges are recognition by the Ministry of Higher Education and the Ministry of Health Specialists.
Prince Sultan Military College of Health Sciences - Assistant Physician Master’s Program
Clinical associates are a category of healthcare providers found in South Africa. They assess patients, make diagnoses, prescribe treatment and perform minor surgery under the supervision of a physician.
Clinical associates must work under the continuous supervision of a “registered medical practitioner” (physician), but that doesn’t mean the physician must be physically present with them. Clinical associates complete a 3-year bachelor’s degree in clinical medical practice. They must then register with the Medical and Dentists Professions Board of the Health Professions Council of South Africa. In 2008, the first 23 clinical associates of Walter Sisulu University graduated. The University of the Witwatersrand (Johannesburg) and the University of Pretoria followed suit in 2009, with 25 and 56 clinical associate graduates. Almost all graduates have found jobs in district hospitals (rural areas), with a few working for non-governmental organizations.
Peace Corps South Africa - for more information, see the Peace Corps section below
Clinical Associate Programs
University of Witwatersrand - teamed up with Emory University
University of Pretoria - teamed up with Arcadia University
Walter Sisulu University - teamed up with the University of Colorado, although relations are winding down
University of Limpopo - never began a program, although there were plans before leadership changed
After a devastating civil war that left much of the southern part of this country in ruins a delicate peace agreement was reached which resulted in the creation of a semi-autonomous state. The resultant impact on healthcare will be felt for years to come. Due to the shortage of health workers AMREF pioneered the training of clinical officers in this region by setting up Maridi National Health Training Institute.
Since the mid 1980s, Taiwan has experimented with a PA-like model of care. The Taiwan Medical Association and organized nursing resisted this model in 2004 and legislation to legalize the PA profession was defeated. All PAs in Taiwan became nurse practitioners and assumed roles spanning nursing and medicine.
Training in Tanzania is under the ministry of health. There are numerous clinical officer training schools and programs last three year. Internship is not required for registration. Experienced clinical officers may enroll for an advanced diploma in clinical medicine which takes two years to complete. This qualification is regarded as equivalent to a first degree in medicine by universities in the country. The graduates are then known as Assistant Medical Officers. A further two years training leads to a specialist qualification in anaesthesia, medicine, surgery and radiology etc.
Training in Uganda is under the ministry of education and takes place in clinical officer training schools. Programs last three years.Kampala International University offers a Bachelor of Science degree in clinical medicine and community health. High school graduates take four-and-a-half years to complete this degree while practicing clinical officers take three years.
United Kingdom & Scotland
The role of Physician Associate (PA) has been established in the United Kingdom since 2005. The role evolved from the position of Physician Assistant, developed in the USA in the 1960s. In 2012 the profession voted to change the name of Physician Assistant to Physician Associate, to distinguish themselves from another role within the NHS, with the same name. At present, there is no regulatory body for PAs, such as the General Medical Council (GMC) for doctors. The only current method of regulation within the professional body is membership to the Managed Voluntary Register (MVR) for Physician Associates. Physician Associates in the United Kingdom are required to re-certify every 5–6 years and maintain up-to-date practice through attendance of training accumulating CPD hours (Continuous professional Development), which need to be completed on an annual basis. Current challenges to PAs in the UK include a lack of legal regulation governing their activity. As a result, they are unable to prescribe or order radiographs. Most PAs worked in family practice in the early days, but now physician associates are being recruited into internal medicine and emergency medicine. Physician associates now work in a wide range of specialties including forensic psychiatry, pediatric ICU, trauma, and orthopedics. Demand has outpaced the current supply of physician associate services available with UK medical schools considering opening new programs in the future. An estimated 20 programs are needed and 10 universities are exploring new programs. If statutory regulation is put in place, physician associates are sure to advance in the UK. As far as acceptance, there are mixed feelings abroad from clinicians and employers alike.
UK Association of Physician Associates - has job listings from England and Scotland
Physician Associate Recruitment Solutions - jobs for physician associates in England
NHS Scotland Recruitment - Scotlands job listing
St. George’s University London - two-year postgraduate diploma
University of Birmingham - two-year postgraduate diploma
University of Hertfordshire - program closed
Wolverhampton University - program closed
University of Aberdeen - two-year postgraduate diploma
U.S. Virgin Islands & Guam, American Samoa, etc.
PAs have reported working on many U.S. virgin islands including, but not limited to, Guam, American Samoa, Saipan, Tinian, St. Thomas, St. Croix.
Express Care Guam - hires physician assistants
Juan F. Luis Hospital and Medical Center - hires physician assistants
Barry University at St. Croix - faculty teaches from Miami shores via interactive video conferencing
Zambia trains clinical officers and medical licentiates at Chainama and has been doing so for nearly 20 years.
University of Zambia - Chainama College of Health Sciences
Medical Contractors (PCMCs) - also known as Peace Corps Medical Officers (PCMOs); primary health care providers for Peace Corps Volunteers and trainees overseas.
- Eligibility is contracted through the headquarters’ office and is limited to licensed and nationally certified PAs.
- Knowledge of French is desired.
- Recruiting is continuous, so there are no closing dates. For more information visit.
U.S. State Department
- Applicants must be American citizens
- Must be at least 20 years old to apply (21-60 years old to be appointed)
- Ineligible to reapply until one year after the application date of prior announcements, provided an open vacancy
- Must check the website for current open periods (when they are hiring)
- Salary: $76,219-$111,930
As a State Department FSHP you are sent where needed. People fluent in many foreign languages can be assigned to a country/region with a completely language unknown to them. You don't dictate where you go, especially as a healthcare practitioner.
Remote Medical International
Remote Medical International is seeking qualified PAs for international remote area duty work. Placements range from tropical islands to the Arctic. If selected as a provider with RMI, you will work with a variety of industries providing medical care and rescue services all over the world as part of a high-performance team of Project Managers, Medical Directors, and others. It is highly likely you will also be involved in a wide variety of operations including technical rescue, maritime, or medevac by aircraft. Although the job is glamorous, it is also very strenuous and demanding. You may find yourself on remote Pacific island, in a tent in Antarctica, or following a film crew in Africa. You will most likely work on a 3 month rotations. Short-term deployments are also very common and range from several days to several months.
Physician Assistants in Australia, JAAPA July 2014
Physician Assistants in Israel, JAAPA December 2014
Physician Assistants in the Netherlands, JAAPA September 2014
Physician Assistants in New Zealand, JAAPA November 2014
Physician Assistants in Saudi Arabia, JAAPA August 2014
Physician Assistants in Canada, JAAPA March 2014
Physician Assistants in India: Triumphs and Tribulations, JAAPA April 2014
Physician Assistants in South Africa, JAAPA June 2014
Physician Associates in the United Kingdom, JAAPA February 2015
Physician Assistants in Taiwan, JAAPA March 2015
Physician Assistants in Ghana, JAAPA April 2015
Haiti, JAAPA July 2015