Thursday, March 26, 2015

Orthopaedics List of Most Commons for Physician Assistant Students

Most Commons in Orthopaedics
  • Compartment Syndrome
    • Most commonly occurs in lower leg following tibia fractures or crash injuries
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injury - most commonly injured knee ligament
  • Osgood Schlatter’s Syndrome - most common in adolescents that are overactive (too many sports)
  • Patellofemoral Pain: most commonly caused by anterior knee pain syndrome, chondromalacia patella, patellofemoral osteoarthritis
  • Fibromyalgia - most common cause of chronic, widespread pain in the US
  • Osteoarthritis - leading cause of long-term disability
    • Most common in the knees and hands, especially after age 50
    • Nodal and knee OA more common in women
    • Hand and knee OA more common in African Americans
  • Most common hip fractures: intertrochanteric and femoral neck
    • Most common complication: avascular necrosis (AVN)
  • Hip Dislocation - posterior dislocation most common
  • Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE) - chronic slipping most common (90%) occurring over several months
  • Clavicle Fractures - most common osseous injury
    • Most common location - middle third
  • Scapula fracture - 90% have associated injuries
    • Most common is a rib fracture
  • Anterior shoulder dislocation - most common type
    • Most commonly traumatic
  • Most common rotator cuff injury - supraspinatus
  • Frozen shoulder (adhesive capsulitis) - most commonly occurs in females 40-70 in non-dominant extremity; usually sedentary occupations
  • Proximal Humerus Fracture
    • Surgical neck fracture - most common 2-part according to Neer Classification
  • Thoracic Outlet Syndrome - most common in females age 20-50
    • Most commonly affects the subclavian artery/vein and lower trunk of brachial plexus (C8/T1)
  • Spondylolysis - most common structural spinal defect in athletes
  • Scoliosis - most commonly occurs in females, age 9-13, mostly idiopathic (85%)
  • Spinal Tumors - most commonly secondary (metastatic)
    • PbKTL (lead kettle) = Prostate, Breast, Kidney, Thyroid, Lung
  • Phalangeal Fracture - 5th toe most commonly affected
  • Colles Fracture
    • Most common fracture in adults 50+
    • Most common fracture in upper extremities
  • Dupuytren’s Contracture
    • Most common in males 40-60
    • Most commonly affects wring finger, pinky, and thumb

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